First, the direction problem
Collect maps and related materials of the activity area as much as possible before travel, and make a preliminary understanding of the larger turns and obvious markers that will appear. When there is a contour map, the planned route and direction can be analyzed, such as: several hills, several passes, and approximate elevation and decline. This helps to determine the direction while traveling.
Second, the waterproof problem
In the rainy season or in rainy areas, especially long-term crossings, such as inadequate waterproof preparation, the entire activity will encounter great trouble. For example, no dry clothes can be changed, and the camera, battery, food and other items are damaged by moisture. Therefore, before the trip, you should understand the climate of the active area and prepare accordingly.
Third, drinking water problem
In the case of short-distance crossing, if it is known that it is difficult to make water, it should be enough to bring drinking water, about 2 liters per person per day (if you do not need to do FB meal). Long-distance crossing, you can take water from the river waterfalls, rivers and lake ponds on the way, but you must observe the pollution situation, such as: there are uninhabited animals near the water, animal corpses, feces and other pollutants. When there is a lot of sediment in the water, the water should be allowed to settle for more than 10 minutes. In areas where there are many grasshoppers, use open or transparent containers when watering, so that you can find out if there are grasshoppers in the water.
Fourth, the problem of fire
When traveling, carry more than one source of fire, such as: lighters (multiple types), matches, fires, etc. It is best to carry a camping stove, gas tank or fuel tank. When you are in a campfire, you should pay attention to whether the camp is a fire-blocking area. Otherwise, you must not violate the rules except for survival. Before the fire, prepare some dry fine wood (slightly thinner than the chopsticks), put it on the bottom of the stone pile, and then put the thick wood on the top, ignite the fine wood and blow it with the mouth, you can blow the fire . When it is raining or the firewood is wet, you can pry the rough wood from the middle to take the dry wood, cut it and use it to make a match (this time you need a machete or other tools).
Five, camping problem
Look for a safe, sheltered, dry, flat high camp. At this time, pay attention to the surrounding environment, such as: whether there are falling stones, wind direction, animal nests, honeycombs, etc. Try not to camp on the river, unless it is determined to be dry, the water level will not change. The camp should not be close to the water and there are more mosquitoes.
Six, wild life
Prepare cold oil, wind oil, safflower oil and other drugs when you travel. Playing leggings can effectively prevent grasshoppers, snakes and other creatures from attacking the legs. A large amount of poisonous snakes can be used to prepare snake medicine.
Seven, nutritional supplements
In the long-term field crossing, physical exertion is high, sweating is more, and the body is prone to salt loss, electrolyte imbalance, and insufficient nutrition, which will seriously affect physical strength and health, and sometimes even dangerous. Therefore, it should be added in time.
Eight, warmth problem
In many areas (such as deserts and mountainous areas), the temperature difference between day and night is large, and some of them will have a large temperature difference for a few hours when they rise above the altitude (the altitude rise temperature will drop, -6 degrees / vertical 1000M). Keeping warm is a must, especially after a lot of sweating and before going to bed.
Nine, other related issues
1) Climbing and descent Unless you have to, you should walk around and don't try dangerous climbing and falling, especially when you are alone and carrying weight. If you must climb, you should first remove the load, climb the body, and then lift the equipment with the auxiliary rope or strap.
2) Balance when the road is in danger (such as wooden bridge, wading, cliff edge, etc.) should remember to loosen the chest strap and belt of the backpack to ensure that it can be quickly and unloaded in time and lost.
3) Night roads, except for special areas (such as deserts), do not easily take the night road. Many of the lost roads occur in the case of low visibility, and the night road is easy to cause a loss. When you have to walk the night road, it is best to have a headlight, and the flashlight will occupy one hand, which is not conducive to balance protection.
4) When wading in the unknown water depth and underwater conditions, do not venture into it, you should try to find out. If you are wearing beach shoes, try not to wading with bare feet. Because it is easy to slip and puncture, you should also be careful of the stones in the water. They are often very smooth and will not be lost if you are not careful. In addition, the water flow rate should be fully estimated before wading
5) All remaining visible rubbish should be taken away. Long-distance crossing should bring at least those non-degradable garbage until there is a unified dump. So the garbage bag is necessary to bring it.